EDUCATION

1990-1995
Ph.D., Cornell, University, Ithaca, NY (Insect Molecular Toxicology); Dissertation: “Molecular Geneticsof P450 Monooxygenase Mediated Resistance in the House Fly, Musca domestica.”

PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE

2014-2020
Chair (100% administration), Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn University.
2009-Present
Professor (75% research, 25% teaching), Insect Molecular Toxicology, Physiology, and Biotechnology, Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn University (AU).
2013-2016
Alumni Professor, Auburn University.
2010-2016
Faculty Endowed Chair/Professor in Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn University.
2003-2009
Associate Professor (75% research, 25% teaching), Insect Molecular Toxicology, Physiology, and Biotechnology, Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, AU.
1997-2003
Assistant Professor (75% research, 25% teaching), Insect Molecular Toxicology, Physiology, and Biotechnology, Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, AU.
1996-1997
Postdoctoral Research Associate, Department of Entomology, Cornell University. Regulation of cytochrome P450 (CYP6D1) gene expression in insecticide resistance of house flies.
1995-1996
Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Rochester, School of Medicine and Dentistry. Heme oxygenase gene regulation in rats.
1990-1995
Graduate Research Associate, Department of Entomology, Cornell University. Mechanisms of resistance and molecular genetics of monooxygenase-mediated resistance in house flies.

courses taught

  • ENTM 7100 – Toxicology
  • ENTM 7200 – Insect Physiology
  • ENTM 8970 – Special Problems and Topics in “Molecular Biology and Biotechnology”
  • ENTM 7970 – Special Problems and Topics in “Biotechnology, Toxicology, and Insect Physiology”

Research

Photo of students in research lab
To address the important insecticide resistance issues, my research group has focused our studies on:

  1. The mechanisms, genes, and polymorphisms involved in insecticide resistance on a genomic scale
  2. Physiological functions of the genes and polymorphisms involved in insecticide resistance
  3. The molecular and genetic bases of resistant gene interaction and regulation
  4. The evolution of the expression and/or codon usage bias of resistance genes following insecticide selection

The accomplishment of these research objectives will not only elucidate mechanisms of insecticide resistance, but will also inform the development of novel means to control insect pests. Our ultimate goal of research is to improve insect pest management.


Team Achievements

2019
“First-Place Award” for Poster Presentation Competition by Wang, Y. and N. Liu, Annual Meeting of Southeastern Branch of the Entomological Society of America (SEB-ESA).
2018
“Second-Prize” for Outstanding Ph.D. Student Poster Presentation by Chen, Z. and N. Liu, Annual Meeting of Southeastern Branch of the Entomological Society of America (SEB-ESA).
2017
“First-Place Award” for Poster Presentation Competition by Feng, X. and N. Liu, Annual Meeting of Entomological Society of America (ESA).
2014
“First-Place Award” for Poster Presentation Competition by Feng, X. and N. Liu, Annual Meeting of Entomological Society of America (ESA).
2014
“Second-Place Award” for Poster Presentation Competition by Gong, Y. and N. Liu, Annual Meeting of Entomological Society of America (ESA).
2013
“First-Place” of Robert T. Gast Award for Outstanding Ph.D. Oral Presentation by Reid, R.W. and N. Liu, The 2013 Annual Meeting of Southeastern Branches of Entomological Society of America (SEB-ESA).
2012
“Presidential Award First Prize” for Poster Presentation by Yang, T. and N. Liu, The National Meeting of the Entomological Society of America (ESA).
2012
“First Place Award” for the Oral Presentation by Li, T and N. Liu, The 2012 Joint Annual Meeting of Southeastern/Southwestern Branches of Entomological Society of America (SEB-ESA).
2011
“Presidential Award First Prize” for Poster Presentation by Li, T. and N. Liu, The National Meeting of the Entomological Society of America (ESA).
2006
“The President’s Prize Runner-Up” for Oral Presentation Competition by Zhu, F. and N. Liu, The National Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America (ESA).
2005
“First-Place Award” for Poster Presentation Competition by Q. Xu and N. Liu, Annual Meeting of ESA.
2004
“First-Place Award” for the Poster Presentation by H. Liu, Q. Xu, and N. Liu, 78th Annual Meeting of the Southeastern Branch of Entomological Society of America (SEB-ESA).
2001
“Presidential Award” Honorable Mention for the Poster Presentation by Y. Wei and N. Liu, National Annual Meeting of Entomological Society of America (ESA).
1999
“Presidential Award” First Prize for the Poster Presentation by Y. Wei and N. Liu, National Annual Meeting of Entomological Society of America (ESA).

Current Students

Mengru An Headshot
Mengru An
Degree: M.S.
Year: 2018-Present
Professor: Dr. Liu
Research: Insecticide resistance in mosquito Aedes Albopictus in Alabama
Shanshan Jiang Headshot
Shanshan Jiang
Degree: Ph.D.
Professor: Dr. Liu
Research: Tentative
Xin Wang Headshot
Xin Wang
Degree: Ph.D.
Professor: Dr. Liu
Research: Tentative

Yifan-Wang-Headshot
Yifan Wang
Degree: M.S. and Ph.D.
Professor: Dr. Liu
Research: Status of insecticide resistance of mosquitoes in Alabama

Former Students

Zhou-Zhen-Headshot
Zhou Zhen
Degree: Ph.D.
Year: 2019
Professor: Dr. Liu
Research: Immunology of the mosquitoes and house flies.

Xuexchun Feng
Degree: Ph.D.
Year: 2018
Professor: Dr. Liu
Research: Resistance gene regulation in house flies, Musca domestica.
Recognitions and Awards: 1. First price, Graduate Student Competition for the President’s Prize, 2014 Annual Meeting of Entomological Society of America (ESA);
2. First Prize, Graduate Student Competition for the President’s Prize, 2017 Annual Meeting of Entomological Society of America (ESA)
Ximin Wang
Degree: M.S.
Year: 2017
Co-advisor: Dr. Liu
Research: The Transmission of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) among white-tailed deer in Alabama.

Photo of student Feng Liu
Feng Liu
Degree: Ph.D.
Year: 2016
Professor: Dr. Liu
Research: Insects’ response to chemicals.
Recognitions and Awards: 1. Top 10 Outstanding Graduate Students of AU, 2016. The Second Place, Outstanding Ph.D. Student Oral Presentation, 2014 Southeastern Branch of the Entomological Society of America (SEB-ESA);
2. Outstanding Ph.D. student, Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn University 2014;
3. “Second Place”, Insect Photography Contest Macrophotography, Male Mosquito Antennal Sensilla, The 2013 Annual Meeting of Southeastern Branches of Entomological Society of America, Baton Rougue, Loisiana;
4. Frist Prize: Graduate Student Competition, Overseas Chinese Entomologists Association, 2014; and
5. The Graduate Research Award, teh Graduate School, AU, 2012.
Caixing Xiong Headshot
Caixing Xiong
Degree: Undergraduate/M.s.
Year: 2016
Professor: Dr. Liu
Research: The insecticide resistance and mechanisms.
Recognitions and Awards: The successful and accelerated 3+2 student, College of Agriculture, Auburn University http://enpp.auburn.edu/news/success-accelerated/.

Ye Zi
Degree: M.S.
Year: 2015
Professor: Dr. Liu
Research: Electrophysiology responses of mosquitoes to human odors.
Recognitions and Awards: USS Smalley – Luther L. Farrar – George D. Bauersfeld Endowment for M.S. student, with the highest GPA 4.0.

JangJang-Xin-Headshot
JangJang Xin
Degree: Ph.D.
Year: 2013 – 2015
Co-Major Professor: Dr. Liu
Research: Function regulatory pathways in P450-mediated insecticide resistance in house flies, Musca domestica.
Photo of student William Reid
William R, Reid
Degree: Ph.D.
Year: 2014
Professor: Dr. Liu
Research: Functional genomics of insecticide resistance in the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus.
Recognitions and Awards: 1. “First Place” of Robert T. Gast Award for Outstanding Ph.D. Oral Presentation by William R. Reid and Nannan Liu, The 2013 Annual Meeting of Southeastern Branches of Entomological Society of America, Baton Rouge, Louisiana;
2. Outstanding Graduate Ph.D. Student Award, Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, AU, 2010;
3. “First Place Award” for the Science Oral Presentation by William R. Reid and Nannan Liu, the 2011 Graduate Scholars Symposium, Auburn University; and
4. The Graduate Research Award, the Graduate School, AU, 2011.
Photo of student Ming Li
Ming Li
Degree: Ph.D.
Year: 2014
Professor: Dr. Liu
Research: Characterize the regulation pathways in insecticide resistance of house flies, Musca domestica.
Recognitions and Awards: 1. Outstanding International Graduate Student Award, College of Agriculture, Auburn University, 2013;
2. The Graduate Research Award, the Graduate School, AU, 2013; and
3. Second Prize: Graduate Student Competition, Overseas Chinese Entomologists Association, 2013


Youhui Gong
Degree: Ph.D.
Year: 2014
Co-Major Professor: Dr. Liu
Research: Function regulatory pathways in P450-mediated insecticide resistance in of mosquitoes, Culex quinquefasciatus.
Recognitions and Awards: 1. Second Prize: Graduate Student Competition for the President’s Prize, 2014 Annual Meeting of Entomological Society of America; and
2. First Prize: Graduate Student Competition, Overseas Chinese Entomologists Association, 2014
Photo of student Ting Li
Ting Li
Degree: M.S. and Ph.D.
Year: 2013
Professor: Dr. Liu
Research: Characterize the functions of G-protein coupled receptors in insecticide resistance of mosquitoes, Culex quinquefasciatus.
Recognitions and Awards: 1. Top 10 Outstanding Graduate Students of AU, 2013;
2. “Second Place” of Robert T. Gast Award for Outstanding Ph.D. Oral Presentation by Ting Li and Nannan Liu, The 2013 Annual Meeting of Southeastern Branches of Entomology Society of America, Baton Rouge, Louisiana;
3. “First Place Award” for the Oral Presentation by Ting LI and Nannan Liu, The 2012 Joint Annual Meeting of Southeastern/Southwestern Branches of Entomological Society of America;
4. Presidential Award First Prize for the Student Research Competition in the National Meeting of the Entomological Society of America (ESA) in Reno, 2011;
5. Outstanding Graduate Ph.D. Student Award, Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, AU, 2010;
6. Outstanding International Graduate Student, College of Agriculture, AU, 2011; and
7. The Graduate Research Award, the Graduate School, AU, 2012.
Currently: A research associate in Liu’s Lab at Auburn University.
Photo of student Ting Yang
Ting Yang
Degree: Ph.D.
Year: 2013
Professor: Dr. Liu
Research: Characterize the functions of cytochrome P450s, their interactions, and regulations in insecticide resistance of mosquitoes, Culex quinquefasciatus.
Recognitions and Awards: 1. Outstanding Graduate Ph.D. Student Award, Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, AU, 2013.
2. Outstanding International Graduate Student, College of Agriculture, AU, 2012;
3. “Presidential Award First Prize” for the Student Research Competition in the National Meeting of Entomological Society of America (ESA) in Knoxville, TN, 2012; and
4. The Graduate Research Award, the Graduate School, AU, 2012.
Currently: An Assistant Professor.

Li-Tain-Headshot
Li Tain
Degree: M.S.
Year: 2010
Professor: Dr. Liu
Research: N/A
Recognitions and Awards: Outstanding Graduate M.S. Student Award, Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, AU, 2010.
Currently: A Ph.D. graduate student in the Department of Entomology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY.
Qiang Xu Headshot
John (Qiang) Xu
Degree: Ph.D.
Year: 2007
Professor: Dr. Liu
Research: Kdr-mediated mechanisms of pyrethroid resistance in the mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus.
Recognitions and Awards: 1. The Graduate Research Award, the Graduate School, AU, 2007;
2. Top 10 Outstanding Ph.D. Graduate Students of AU, 2007;
3. Jeffery P. LaFage Graduate Student Research Award, the Entomological Foundation of USA, 2006;
4. “First Place Award” for Student Competition Awards of the Overseas Chinese Entomologists Association, 2006;
5. Overall Outstanding International Graduate Student, College of Agriculture, AU, 2006;
6. “First Place Award” for the poster presentation by Qiang Xu and Nannan Liu, 2005 Annual Meeting ESA, 2005;
7. “First Place Award” for the poster presentation by Qiang Xu and Nannan Liu, 14th Annual Graduate Research Forum, AU, 2004.
Currently: An Associate Professor in the Department of Biology, Abilene Christian University.
Fang Zhu Headshot
Fang Zhu
Degree: Ph.D.
Year: 2007
Professor: Dr. Liu
Research: Cytochrome P450 mediated insecticide resistance in the house fly, Musca domestica (L.).
Recognitions and Awards: 1. “Second Place Award”, Oral Presentation Competition. 17th Annual Graduate Research Forum, AU, 2007;
2. “President’s Prize Runner Up” for Oral Presentation Competition, The National Annual Meeting ESA, Indianapolis, IN, 2006;
3. Graduate Student Thesis/Dissertation Research Award, AU, 2006;
4. Outstanding Graduate Student Award, Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, AU, 2005;
5. Graduate Student Thesis/ Dissertation Research Award, AU, 2005.
Currently: A research fellow in the Department of Entomology, University of Kentucky, Lexington.

Huqi Liu Headshot
Huqi Liu
Degree: Ph.D.
Year: 2005
Co-Major Professor: Dr. Liu
Research: Mechanisms of insecticide resistance in mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus (S.) and Culex quinquefasciatus (S.).
Recognitions and Awards: “First Place Award” for the poster presentation titled “Mechanisms of Insecticide Resistance in Culex quinquefasciatus by Huqi Liu, Qiang Xu, and Nannan Liu, 78th Annual Meeting of the Southeastern Branch ESA, 2004.
Currently: An associate professor, Department of Biology, College of Life Sciences, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, China.
Yuping-Wei-Headshot
Yuping Wei
Degree: Ph.D.
Year: 2002
Professor: Dr. Liu
Research: Molecular mechanisms of insecticide resistance in German Cockroaches.
Recognitions and Awards: 1. Merriwether Fellowship, AU, 2002, $4,000;
2. “Presidential Award” honorable mention for poster presentation “Isolation and characterization of insecticide resistance-related genes from the German Cockroach, Blattella germanica” by Yuping Wei and Nannan Liu, ESA, 2001;
3. Outstanding Ph.D. Graduate Student Award, Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, AU, 2001;
4. Academic Excellence Outstanding Graduate Student Award in the College of Agriculture, AU, 2001;
5. “Presidential Award, First Place” Award for the poster presentation “Transportation of the mariner element from Drosophila mauritiana in the house fly, Musca domestica by Yuping Wei and Nannan Liu, ESA, 1999.
Currently: A molecular biologist at Aquatic Animal Research, USDA-ARS, Auburn AL.

Research Review Book


RECENT ADVANCES IN INSECT PHYSIOLOGY, TOXICOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
Editor: Nannan Liu
ISBN: 978-81-308-0242-8
Publisher: Research Signpost
Page Count: 208
Chapters: 12 Research Review Chapters


The aim of this book was to provide up-to-date comprehensive reviews of critical areas in entomological research. Twelve research topics are discussed, that examine aspects of insect physiology, toxicology, and molecular biology that other recent books on entomological research have not addressed or have addressed less detail. The audience to the book is researchers, graduate students, and scientists who are currently working or plan to work in this field, and for persons not necessarily familiar with entomological research but who are interested in the topic.

Book Chapters

  1. Li. T. and N. Liu. 2018. G-protein coupled receptors: their expression, function, and regulation in insecticide resistance. In: Advances in the Biorational Control of Medical and Veterinary Pests, Edmund J. N., Coats. J. R., Gross, A. D., and Clark, J. M. (Eds.), ACS Publications, ISBN13: 978-084-123-359-1, pp. 153-172.
  2. Liu, N. 2012. Pyrethroid resistance in insects: genes, mechanisms, and regulation. In: Insecticides Advances in Integrated Pest Management, Perveen F. (Ed.), InTech- Open Access Publisher, ISBN 978-953-307-780-2, pp. 457-468.
  3. Liu, N. and F. Zhu. 2011. House fly cytochrome p450s: their role in insecticide resistance and strategies in the isolation and characterization. In: Recent Advances in Entomological Research: From Molecular Biology to Pest Management, Liu, T. X and Kang, L. (Eds.), Springer, Heidelberg Dordrecht London New York, ISBA 978-3-642-17814-6, pp. 246-257.
  4. Xu, Q. and N. Liu. 2011. The development of pyrethroid resistance in the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. In: Recent Advances in Entomological Research: From Molecular Biology to Pest Management, Chapter 17, Liu, T. X and Kang, L. (Eds.), Springer, Heidelberg Dordrecht London New York, ISBA 978-3-642-17814-6, pp. 295-305.
  5. Liu, N. 2008. Insecticide resistance in mosquitoes: development and mechanisms. In: Recent Advances in Insect Physiology, Toxicology and Molecular Biology, Liu, N. (Ed.), Research Signpost, Kerala, India, pp. 75-91.

Peer-Reviewed and Refereed

  1.  Wang, X., C. Zhou, Y. Wang1, F. Liu, S. Jiang and N. Liu. 2020. Heterologous Expression and Functional Analysis of Aedes aegypti Odorant Receptors to human odors in Xenopus Oocytes. J. Vis. Exp. e61813, doi:10.3791/61813
  2. Feng, X. and N. Liu. 2020. Functional analyses of house fly carboxylesterases involved in insecticide resistance. Front. Physiol. 11:595009. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2020.595009
  3. Elzaki, M.E.A., Z.F. Li,  J. Wang, L. Xu, N. Liu, R.S. Zeng and Y.Y. Song. 2020. Activiation of the nitric oxide cycle by citrulline and arginine restores susceptibility of resistant brown planthoppers to the insecticide imidacloprid. J. Hazard. Mater. 396, 122755 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.122755.
  4. Bui, M., M. Li, R. R. Raban, N. Liu, and O. S. Akbari. 2020. Embryo Microinjection Techniques for Efficient Site-Specific Mutagenesis in Culex quinquefasciatus. J. Vis. Exp. (159), e61375, doi:10.3791/61375.
  5. Ye, Z., F. Liu and N. Liu. 2020. Three-dimensional Structure of the Antennal Lobe in the Southern House Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. Insect science. doi: 10.1111/1744-7917.12767.
  6. Li, M., T. Li and N. Liu, R. Raban, X. Wang, O.S. Akbari. 2020. Methods for the generation of heritable germline mutations in the disease vector Culex quinquefasciatus using CRISPR/Cas9. Insect Mol. Biol. doi: 10.1111/imb.12626
  7. Elzaki, M.E.A., Z.F. Li, J. Wang, L. Xu, N. Liu, R.S. Zeng and Y.Y. Song. 2020. Activiation of the nitric oxide cycle by citrulline and arginine restores susceptibility of resistant brown planthoppers to the insecticide imidacloprid. J. Hazard. Mater. 396, 122755 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.122755.
  8. Bui, M., M. Li, R. R. Raban, N. Liu, and O. S. Akbari. 2020. Embryo Microinjection Techniques for Efficient Site-Specific Mutagenesis in Culex quinquefasciatus. J. Vis. Exp. (159), e61375, doi:10.3791/61375.
  9. Ye, Z., F. Liu and N. Liu. 2020. Three-dimensional Structure of the Antennal Lobe in the Southern House Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. Insect science. doi: 10.1111/1744-7917.12767.
  10. Li, M., T. Li and N. Liu, R. Raban, X. Wang, O.S. Akbari. 2019. Methods for the generation of heritable germline mutations in the disease vector Culex quinquefasciatus using CRISPR/Cas9. Insect Mol. Biol. In Press.
  11. Xu, P., Y.M. Choo, Z. Chen, F. Zeng, K. Tan, T. Y. Chen, A.J. Cornel, N. Liu and W.S Leal. 2019. Odorant inhibition in mosquito olfaction. iScience, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.isci.2019.07.008.
  12. Li, T. and N. Liu. 2019. Role of the G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Signaling Pathway in Insecticide Resistance. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 20, 4300; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20174300.
  13. Zhou, C., F. Liu and N. Liu. 2019. Human Odour Coding in the Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Sci. Rep. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-49753-2.
  14. Feng, X. and N. Liu. 2018. Baculovirus-mediated cell expression system in functional characterization of carboxylesterases in insecticide resistant house flies, Musca domestica. J. Vis. Exp. 138, e58106, doi:10.3791/58106.
  15. Zhou, C., F. Liu and N. Liu. 2018. Neuronal Responses of Antennal Olfactory Sensilla to Insect Chemical Repellents in the Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti. J. Chem. Ecol. DOI: 10.1007/s10886-018-1022-5.
  16. William R. R., L. Zhang, Y. Gong, T. Li and N. Liu. 2018. Gene Expression Profiles of the Southern House Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus During Exposure to Permethrin. Insect Sci., 25, 439-453.
  17. Li, T. and N. Liu. 2018. The function of G-protein-coupled receptor-regulatory cascade in southern house mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). J. Med. Entomol. 1–9, doi: 10.1093/jme/tjy022.
  18. Feng, X., M. Li and N. Liu. 2018. Carboxylesterase genes in pyrethroid resistant house flies, Musca domestica. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 92, 30-39.
  19. Adesanya, A., D. W. Held and N. Liu. 2018. Ontogeny, sex, and adult tissues influence activities of detoxification enzymes in the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman. Physiol. Entomol. DOI: 10.1111/phen.12260.
  20. Li, T. and N. Liu. 2017. Regulation of P450-mediated permethrin resistance in Culex quinquefasciatus by the GPCR/Gαs/AC/cAMP/PKA signaling cascade. Biochem. Biophys. Rep. 12, 12-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrep.2017.08.010.
  21. Adesanya, A. W., D. W. Held and N. Liu. 2017. Geranium intoxication induces detoxification enzymes in the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 143, 1-7.
  22. Liu, F., X. Xia and N. Liu. 2017. Molecular Basis of N,N-Diethyl-3-Methylbenzamide (DEET) in Repelling the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius. Front. Physiol. | doi: 10.3389/fphys.2017.00418.
  23. Liu, F., C. Xiong and N. Liu. 2017. Chemoreception to Aggregation Pheromones in the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius. Insect Biochem. Mol. Bio. 82, 62-73.
  24. Gong Y., T. Li, Y. Feng and N. Liu. 2017. The function of two P450s, CYP9M10 and CYP6AA7, in the permethrin resistance of Culexquinquefasciatus. Sci. Rep. 7, 587; doi:10.1038/s41598.
  25. Liu, F., Z. Chen and N. Liu. 2017. Molecular Basis of Olfactory Chemoreception in the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius. Sci. Rep. 7:45531. doi: 10.1038/srep45531.
  26. Ye, Z., F. Liu and N. Liu. 2016. Olfactory responses of southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, to human odorants. Chem. Sense. 41, 441-447. doi:10.1093/chemse/bjv089.
  27. Liu, F. and N. Liu. 2016. Using Single Sensillum Recording to Detect Olfactory Neuron Responses of Bed Bugs to Semiochemicals. J. Vis. Exp. 107, e53337.
  28. Adesanya, A., N. Liu and D. W. Held. 2016. Host suitability and diet mixing influence activities of detoxification enzymes in adult Japanese beetles. J. Insect Physiol. 88, 55-62.
  29. Liu, N. 2015. Insecticide Resistance in Mosquitoes: Impact, Mechanisms, and Research Directions. Annual Review of Entomology. 60, 537-559.
  30. Wang, L., Y. Nomura, Y. Du and N. Liu, B. Zhorov, and K. Dong. 2015. A Mutation in the Intracellular Loop III/IV of Mosquito Sodium Channel Synergizes the Effect of Mutations in Helix IIS6 on Pyrethroid Resistance. Mol. Pharmacol. 87, 421-429.
  31. Liu, N. M. Li, Y. Gong, F. Liu and T. Li. 2015. Cytochrome P450s –Their Expression, Regulation, and Role in Insecticide Resistance. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 120, 77-81.
  32. Liu, F. and Liu, N. 2015. Human Odorant Reception in the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius. Sci. Rep. 5, 15558; doi: 10.1038/srep15558.
  33. Reid, W.R., L. Zhang and N. Liu. 2015. Temporal Gene Expression Profiles of Pre Blood-Fed Adult Females Immediately Following Eclosion in the Southern House Mosquito Culex Quinquefasciatus. Int. J. Biol. Sci. 11, 1306-1313. doi:10.7150/ijbs.12829.
  34. Li, T. C. Cao, T. Yang, L. Zhang, L. He, Z. Xi, G. Bian and N. Liu. 2015. A G-protein-coupled receptor regulation pathway in cytochrome P450-mediated permethrin-resistance in mosquitoes, Culex quinquefasciatus. Sci. Rep. 5, 17772; doi: 10.1038/srep17772.
  35. Scott, G.J., W.C. Warren, L.W. Beukeboom, D. Bopp, A.G. Clark, S.D. Giers, M. Hediger, A.K. Jones, S. Kasai, C.A. Leichter, M. Li, R.P. Meisel, P. Minx, T.D. Murphy, D.R. Nelson, W.R. Reid, F.D. Rinkevich, H.M. Robertson, T.B. Sackton, D.B. Sattelle, F. Thibaud-Nissen, C. Tomlinson, L. van de Zande, K.K.O. Walden, R.K. Wilson and N. Liu. 2014. Genome of the House Fly (Musca domestica L), a Global Vector of Diseases with Adaptations to a Septic Environment. Genome Biol.15, 466: doi:10.1186/s13059-014-0466-3.
  36. Li, T., L. Liu, L. Zhang and, N. Liu. 2014. Role of G-protein-coupled Receptor-related Genes in Insecticide Resistance of the Mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus. Sci. Rep. 4, 6474 doi:10.1038/srep06474.
  37. Reid, W. R., A. Thornton, J. W. Pridgeon, J. J. Becnel, F. Tang, A. Estep, G. G. Clark, S. Allen and N. Liu. 2014. Transcriptional analysis of 164 P450s in a Puerto Rico strain of Aedes aegypti compared to an Orlando strain and functional studies of four family 4 P450s. J. Med. Entomol. 51, 605-615.
  38. Tang, F., X. Zhang, Y. Liu, X. Gao and N. Liu. 2014. In vitro inhibition of glutathione S-transferases by several insecticides and allelochemicals in two insect species. Int. J. Pest Manage. 60, 33-38.
  39. Liu, F., K. F. Haynes, A. G. Appel and N. Liu. 2014. Electrophysiological Responses of the Antennal Olfactory Sensilla to Chemical in the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius L. J. Chem. Ecol. 40, 522–533. The study is on the Cover (Photo) of the current Journal Issue.
  40. Zhang, J., J. Yao, R. Wang, Y. Zhang, S. Liu, L. Sun, Y. Jiang, J. Feng and N. Liu, D. Nelson, G. Waldbieser, Z. Liu. 2014. The cytochrome P450 genes of channel catfish: Their involvement in disease defense responses as revealed by meta-analysis of RNA-Seq data sets. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta General Subjects 1840, 2813–2828.
  41. Liu, N. 2014. In Memoriam: To our beloved friend, colleague, and Overseas Chinese Entomologists Association (OCEA) member, Professor Que Lan, 1959-2014. Insect Sci. 21, 796: DOI: 10.1111/1744-7917.12166.
  42. Liu, F., X. Shi, Y. Liang, Q. Wu, B. Xu, W. Xie, S. Wang, Y. Zhang and N. Liu. 2014. A 36-bp deletion in the alpha subunit of glutamategated chloride channel contributes to abamectin resistance in Plutella xylostella. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. DOI: 10.1111/eea.12232.
  43. Li, M., W. R. Reid, L. Zhang, J. G. Scott, X. Gao, M. Kristensen and N. Liu. 2013. A Whole Transcriptomal Linkage Analysis of Gene Co-Regulation in Insecticide Resistant House Flies, Musca domestica. BMC Genomics 14:803.
  44. Yang, T. and N. Liu. 2013. Permethrin resistance profiles in a field population of mosquitoes, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). J. Med. Entomol. 50, 585-593.
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  48. Tan, W-L., Z-M. Wang, C-X. Li, H-L. Chu, Y. Xu, Y-D. Dong, Z-C. Wang, D-Y. Chen, H. Liu, D-P. Liu, N. Liu, J. Sun and T. Zhao. 2012. First report on co-occurrence knockdown resistance mutations and susceptibility to Beta-cypermethrin in Anopheles sinensis from Jiangsu province, China. PLoS One 7(1): e29242. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0029242.
  49. Wang, Z. M., C. X. Li, D. Xing, Y. H. Yu, N. Liu, R. Xue, Y. D. Dong and T. Y. Zhao. 2012. Detection and widespread distribution of sodium channel alleles characteristic of insecticide resistance in Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes in China. Med. Vet. Entomol. 26, 228-232.
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  51. Xu, Q., L. Zhang, T. Li, L. Zhang, L. He, K. Dong and N. Liu. 2012. Evolutionary adaption of the amino acid and codon usage of the mosquito sodium channel following permethrin selection. PLoS One 7(10): e47609. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047609.
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  53. Lin H., T. Li, L. Zhang and N. Liu. 2012. Multiple Sodium Channel Variants in the Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. Int. J. Biol. Sci. 8, 1291-1309.
  54. Tian, L., C. Cao1, L. He, M. Li, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Liu and N. Liu. 2011. Autosomal interactions and mechanisms of pyrethroid resistance in house flies, Musca domestica. Int. J. Biol. Sci. 7, 902-911.
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  56. Xu, Q., L. Tain, L. Zhang and N. Liu. 2011. Sodium channel genes and their differential genotypes at the L-to-F kdr locus in the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Com. 407, 645-649.
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  60. Wang, H., L. Zhang, Q. Lin, L. Zhang and N Liu. 2009. Arginine kinase: the differentiation of the gene expression and protein activity in the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. Gene 430, 38-43.
  61. Scott J. G., N. Liu, M. Kristensen and A. G. Clark. 2009. A case for sequencing the genome of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae). J. Med. Entomol. 46, 175-182.
  62. Li, T., Q. Lan and N. Liu. 2009. Larvicidal activity of mosquito sterol carrier protein-2 inhibitors to the insecticide resistant mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). J. Med. Entomol. 46, 1430-1435.
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  64. He, L., X. Gao, J. Wang, Z. Zhao and N. Liu. 2009. Genetic analysis of abamectin resistance in Tetranychus cinnabarinus. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 95, 147-151.
  65. Zhu, F., J. Feng, L. Zhang and N. Liu. 2008. Characterization of two novel cytochrome P450 genes in insecticide resistant house flies. Insect Mol. Biol. 20, 1365-1583.
  66. Zhu, F. and N. Liu. 2008. Differential expression of CYP6A5 and CYP6A5v2 in pyrethroid-resistant house flies, Musca domestica. Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol. 34, 147-161.
  67. Zhu, F., T. Li, L. Zhang and N. Liu. 2008. Co-up-regulation of three P450 genes in response to permethrin exposure in permethrin resistant house flies, Musca domestica. BMC Physiology 8, 18 doi:10.1186/1472-6793-8-18, pp. 1-13.
  68. Liu, N., H. Liu, F. Zhu and L. Zhang. 2007. Differential expression of genes in pyrethroid resistant and susceptible mosquitoes, Culex quinquefasciatus (S.). Gene 394, 61-68.
  69. Zhu, F., J. Feng, L. Zhang, and N. Liu*. 2007. Differential gene expression between resistant and susceptible house flies, Musca domestica (L.). SAAS Bull. Biochem. Biotech. 18, 20-31.
  70. Liu, N., Q. Xu and L. Zhang. 2006. Sodium channel gene expression in mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus (S.) Insect Sci. 13, 431-436.
  71. Xu, Q., H. Wang, L. Zhang and N. Liu. 2006. Posttranscriptional regulation of sodium channel gene expression in insecticide resistance. Gene 379, 62-67.
  72. Liu, N., Q. Xu, F. Zhu and L. Zhang. 2006. Pyrethroid resistance in mosquitoes. Insect Sci. 13, 159-166.
  73. Xu, Q., H. Wang, L. Zhang and N. Liu. 2006. Kdr allelic expression of the sodium channel gene in insecticide resistance of Culex quinquefasciatus. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Com. 345, 774-780.
  74. Xu, Q., H. Wang, L. Zhang and N. Liu. 2006. Posttranscriptional regulation of sodium channel gene expression is associated with insecticide resistance in insects. Resis. Pest Manag. Newsl. 15, 61-64.
  75. Liu, N., F. Zhu, Q. Xu, J. W. Pridgeon and L. Zhang. 2006. Behavioral change, physiological modification, and metabolic detoxification: mechanisms of insecticide resistance. Acta Entomologica Sinica 48, 672-680.
  76. Lee, S. E., B. C. Campbell, Y. S. Ok, J. H. Kim, B. S. Park and N. Liu. 2005. Biochemical changes in dehydrogenase, hydroxylase and tyrosinase of a permethrin-resistant strain of housefly larvae, Musca domestica L. Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 20, 258-263.
  77. Scott, J. G., N. Liu and M. Kristensen. 2005. Rationale for sequencing the genome of the house fly, Musca domestica. National Human Genome Research Institute, NIH, USA. 1-16.
  78. Liu, H., Q. Xu, L. Zhang and N. Liu. 2005. Chlorpyrifos resistance in the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. J. Med. Entomol. 42, 815-820.
  79. Xu, Q., H. Liu, L. Zhang and N. Liu. 2005. Resistance in the mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, and possible mechanisms for resistance. Pest Manag. Sci. 61, 1096-1102.
  80. Liu, N. and L. Zhang. 2004. CYP4AB1, CYP4AS1 and Gp-9 overexpression in workers of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. Gene 327, 81-87.
  81. Liu, H., E. W. Cupp, K. M. Micher, A. Guo and N. Liu. 2004. Insecticide resistance and cross-resistance in Alabama and Florida strains of Culex quinquefasciatus (S.). J. Med. Entomol. 41, 408-413.
  82. Liu, N., J. W. Pridgeon, H. Wang, Z. Liu and L. Zhang. 2004. Identification of the mariner transposable element from house flies and German cockroaches. Insect Mol. Biol. 13, 443-447.
  83. Liu, H., E. W. Cupp, A. Guo and N. Liu. 2004. Insecticide resistance in Aedes albopictus (S.). J. Med. Entomol. 41, 946-952.
  84. Pridgeon, J. W., L. Zhang and N. Liu. 2003. Overexpression of CYP4G19 associated with pyrethroid resistant German cockroaches. Gene 314, 157-163.
  85. Pridgeon, J. W. and N. Liu. 2003. Overexpression of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene associated with a pyrethroid resistant strain of German cockroaches, Blattella germanica. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 33, 1043-1048. Impact Factor 2010: 4.018.
  86. Liu, N. and L. Zhang. 2002. Identification of two cytochrome P450 genes and their 5’ flanking regions from the house fly, Musca domestica (L.). Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 32, 755-764.
  87. Liu, N. and J. W. Pridgeon. 2002. Metabolic detoxication and the kdr mutation in pyrethroid resistant house flies, Musca domestica (L.). Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 73, 157-163.
  88. Pridgeon, J. W., A. G. Appel, W. J. Moar and N. Liu. 2002. Variability of resistance mechanisms in three strains of pyrethroid resistant German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.). Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 73, 149-156.
  89. Liu, N. and X. Yue. 2001. Genetics of pyrethroid resistance in the house fly (Diptera: Muscidae). Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 70, 151-158.
  90. Wei, Y., A. Appel, W. J. Moar and N. Liu. 2001. Pyrethroid resistance and mechanisms in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.). Pest Manag. Sci. 57, 1055-1059.
  91. Liu, N. and X. Yue. 2000. Insecticide resistance and cross-resistance in the house fly (Diptera: Muscidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 93, 1269-1275.
  92. Liu, N., X. J. Wang, W. K. McCoubrey and M. D. Maines. 2000. Developmentally regulated expression of two transcripts for heme oxygenase-2 with a first exon unique to rat testis: control by corticosterone of the oxygenase protein expression. Gene 241, 175-183.
  93. Scott, J. G., N. Liu, Z. Wen, F. F. Smith, S. Kasai and C. E. Horak. 1999. House-fly cytochrome P450 CYP6D1: 5’ flanking sequences and comparison of alleles. Gene 226, 347-353.
  94. Liu, N. and J. G. Scott. 1998. Increased transcription of CYP6D1 causes cytochrome P450-mediated resistance in house fly. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 28, 531-535.
  95. Scott, J. G., N. Liu and Z. Wen. 1998. Insect cytochromes P450. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 121, 147-155.
  96. Liu, N. and J. G. Scott. 1997. Inheritance of CYP6D1-mediated pyrethroid resistance in house fly (Diptera: Muscidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 90, 1478-1481.
  97. Liu, N. and J. G. Scott. 1997. Phenobarbital induction of CYP6D1 is due to a trans acting factor on autosome 2 in house flies, Musca domestica. Insect Mol. Biol. 6, 77-81.
  98. Liu, N. and J. G. Scott. 1996. Genetic analysis of factors controlling high-level expression of cytochrome P450, CYP6D1, cytochrome b5, P450 reductase, and monooxygenase activities in LPR house flies, Musca domestica. Biochem. Genet. 34, 133-147.
  99. Scott, J. G., P. Sridhar and N. Liu. 1996. Adult specific expression and induction of cytochrome P450lpr in house flies. Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol. 31, 313-323.
  100. Tomita, T., N. Liu, F. F. Smith, P. Sridhar and J. G. Scott. 1995. Molecular mechanisms involved in increased expression of a cytochrome P450 responsible for pyrethroid resistance in the house fly, Musca domestica. Insect Mol. Biol. 4, 135-140.
  101. Liu, N. and J. G. Scott. 1995. Genetic basis of monooxygenase-mediated resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in the house fly. Pestic. Sci. 43, 245-246.
  102. Liu, N. and J. G. Scott. 1995. Genetics of resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in the house fly, Musca domestica. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 52, 116-124.
  103. Liu, N., T. Tomita and J. G. Scott. 1995. Allele-specific PCR reveals that the cytochrome P450lpr gene is on chromosome 1 in the house fly, Musca domestica. Experientia 51, 164-169.
  104. Scott, J. G., R. T. Roush and N. Liu. 1991. Selection of high-level abamectin resistance from field-collected house flies, Musca domestica. Experientia 47, 288-291.
  105. Scott, J. G., C. J. Geden, D. A. Rutz and N. Liu. 1991. Comparative toxicity of seven insecticides to immature stages of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) and two of its important biologic control agents, Muscidifurax raptor and Spalangia cameroni (Hymanoptera: Pteromalidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 84, 776-779.
  106. Smith, D. and N. Liu. 1988. Yeast autolysate bait sprays for control of Queensland fruit fly on passionfruit in Queensland. Queensland J. Agric. Anim. Sci. 45, 169-177.